The Sword of Damocles


The Sword of Damocles   (head-mounted display and computer TX-2)    1965


Game is lost.


First virtual reality and augmented reality  head-mounted display (foreruner of nintendo 3ds games), first 3D game (wire-frame 3D)

Silent, monochrome game

TX-2 computer
TX-2 computer

Gameplay video

1) The device was primitive  and the graphics comprising the virtual environment were simple wireframe rooms. Sunderland’s system allowed the user to view 3D-generated computer graphics and to see those graphics as if they were in the same environment as the user. System itself consisted of six subsystems: a clipping divider, matrix multiplier, vector generator, headset, head position sensor, and a general-purpose computer—which would make these the components of the first virtual reality machine as we know them today. The unit was partially see-through, so the users were not completely cut off from their reality.
2) First display application was a cube suspended in the air in front of the user.

3) From manual -"We can display objects which appear to be close to the user or which appear to be infinitely far
away. We can display objects beside the user or behind him which will become visible to him if heturns around. The user is able to move his head three feet off axis in any direction to get a better view of nearby objects. He can turn completely around and can tilt his head up or down thirty or forty degrees. The objects displayed appear to hang in the space all around the user. We have concluded that showing "opaque" objects with hidden fines removed is beyond our present capability. The three-dimensional objects shown by our equipment are

transparent "wire frame" line drawings."
Special spectacles containing two miniature cathode ray tubes are attached to the user's head

The optical system in this headset magnifies the pictures on each of two tiny cathode ray tubes to present a virtual image about eighteen inches in front of each of the user's eyes. Each virtual image is roughly the size of a conventional CRT display
Half-silvered mirrors in the prisms through which the user looks allow him to see both the images from the cathode ray tubes and objects in the room simultaneously. Thus displayed material can be made either to hang disembodied in space or to coincide with maps, desk tops, walls, or the keys of a typewriter."

4) First version build in 1965, later  versions was build later in 1966-68 with custom computer.

5) First home augmented reality game is The Eye of Judgment (2007)

6) Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality.

7) Virtual reality or virtual realities (VR), which can be referred to as immersive multimedia or computer-simulated reality, replicates an environment that simulates a physical presence in places in the real world or an imagined world, allowing the user to interact in that world. Virtual realities artificially create sensory experiences, which can include sight, hearing, touch, and smell.

8) 3D video game is a video game with 3D game graphics, that are computed in 3 dimensions.

9) A wire-frame 3D model is a visual presentation of a three-dimensional (3D) or physical object used in 3D computer graphics. It is created by specifying each edge of the physical object where two mathematically continuous smooth surfaces meet, or by connecting an object's constituent vertices using straight lines or curves. The object is projected onto a display screen by drawing lines at the location of each edge. The term wire frame comes from designers using metal wire to represent the three-dimensional shape of solid objects. 3D wire frame allows to construct and manipulate solids and solid surfaces. The 3D solid modeling technique efficiently draws higher quality representations of solids than the conventional line drawing.

19) Predecessor of Oculis RiftPlaystation VR (for Playstation 4), and HTC Vive (from Valve) mount-head displays.

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